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      1. 指彈吉他和古典吉他是完全不同的兩種東西嗎?來聽聽莫勒怎么說

        發布時間:2019/8/3 10:33:34 來源:沈陽吉他培訓網 發布:劉巍老師 閱讀:


        7月15日,2019WAGF第一屆亞洲原聲吉他論壇上,莫勒作為唯一被邀請的古典吉他演奏家在論壇上發表了演講,為大家分享了他對于指彈吉他和古典吉他的一些看法。



        ·  正  ·  文  ·  來  ·  啦  ·


        女士們先生們,各位吉他界的朋友們,

         

        非常榮幸能來參加WAGF啄木鳥原聲吉他藝術節。

         

        Guitar這個單詞源自于波斯語中的Tar,Tar的意思就是琴弦。所以,從字面上就能看出,Do-tara都塔爾,是兩根弦的樂器,而Ses-tar就是一種六根弦的樂器。


        兩根琴弦的新疆民族樂器「都塔爾」

         

        而Guitar這個單詞作為一種樂器的定義,應該是源自15世紀西班牙南部的馬拉加Malaga人。在當時,這是一種4跟弦的非常小的吉他,有點像我們今天的尤克里里。

         

        從那時候開始,吉他就一直在不斷地發展和變化。按照今天的命名方法,吉他從文藝復興吉他逐漸發展成為了巴洛克吉他。


        油畫中的「巴洛克吉他」


        直到18世紀末,在意大利終于出現了6根弦的吉他。這種6弦吉他在今天被稱為古典吉他,因為它出現的時間剛好是西方音樂史中的古典時期,這種吉他被發明出來的目的是為了服務于古典時期的音樂。正是這種吉他逐漸發展成為了當今我們所熟知的吉他。


         

        在1830年代,德國古典吉他制作家Christian Frederick Martin移民到了美國,不久他創立了C.F. Martin & Co.(馬丁吉他公司),首次將X音梁結構應用到了吉他上。大家都知道,X音梁結構的引入使得吉他的面板可以承受更大的拉力,也就讓使用鋼絲琴弦成為了可能。



        幾乎在同一時期,西班牙的托雷斯Torres將扇形音梁結構應用到了古典吉他上,同樣能讓面板承受更大的拉力,并且可以增加音量。不久之后,尼龍弦代替了羊腸弦,進一步增大了古典吉他的音量。



        雖然古典吉他和指彈鋼弦吉他是吉他發展過程中衍生出的兩種不同風格的樂器,但它們也有許多共同點。

         

        古典吉他通常被認為是一個學院派的樂器,你可以通過學習古典吉他而獲得古典音樂的學位。


        莫勒畢業于英國RCM「皇家音樂學校」


        從技術層面上講,古典吉他和指彈吉他是一樣的,只不過古典吉他使用的是尼龍弦,現在也有越來越多的古典吉他開始使用碳纖琴弦。


        古典吉他和指彈吉他的不同點不在技巧方面,而在于演奏的音樂風格不同。

         

        如果我們不用古典吉他去演奏學院派的古典音樂,而用它來演奏現代音樂,那么古典吉他和指彈吉他就走到了同一條路上。一些現代派的古典吉他作品經常會用到現代指彈吉他的技巧,比如點弦,演奏中調弦和打板等技巧。


        指彈大師Pierre Bensusan的持琴姿勢非常古典

         

        吉他可能是世界上最全球化的樂器了,你可以在任何地方見到吉他。吉他是一件非常便于攜帶的樂器,并且能適應各種不同風格的音樂和文化,當然最常見的形式還是用于為演唱做伴奏。但是當我們使用指彈技巧的時候,我們就可以在一把吉他上同時演奏旋律、低音以及和弦,就像鋼琴一樣。



        CD



        莫勒2019年專輯「吉他上的中國記憶」


        我本人一直都對東方音樂非常感興趣,起初我花了很多年時間在印度音樂上。后來,我發現古典吉他和中國音樂非常般配,所以我改編了很多中國歌曲,也創作了一些中國傳統風格的古典吉他音樂。

         

        我現在也開始演奏鋼弦吉他了,我發現從尼龍弦吉他到鋼弦吉他的過度非常自然。今天,我更愿意把整個吉他世界看成一個整體。


        非常希望古典吉他和指彈吉他這兩個領域在未來可以有更多的交流!



        莫勒和指彈吉他天才少年「劉嘉卓」



        演講稿英文版


        Ladies and Gentlemen, boys and girls. 

         

        It is a great pleasure to be here at the Woodpecker Acoustic Guitar festival. 

         

        The word guitar can be traced to its Persian root: Tar. Best understood to mean string. As a Do-tara for example is a two stringed instrument and Ses-tar is a six stringed one. 

         

        But the Guitar as a definition was most likely invented by the people of Malaga in the 15th century. That was a four stringed very small guitar, so more like what we today call a ukulele. 

         

        Ever since the guitar has been in constant development and change. What we call the Renascence guitar became the baroque guitar. The guitar got six strings sometime in the end of the 18th century in Italy. This is now called a classical guitar since it was invented in the “classical” music period and was originally invented to serve the current musical taste. It was from this type of guitar that the type of guitars we know today developed from.

         

        A German luthier of classical guitars Christian Frederick Martin emigrated in 1830s to the USA. Later founding the C.F. Martin & Co. who introduced the X bracing to the market. 

         

        As you know the X bracing later made it possible to start using steel strings, since this construction could then hold the increased tension that the steal strings add. 

         

        Simultaneously Torres in Spain invented the fan bracing for the classical guitar for the same reason which was to increase the volume. Later nylon strings replaced the gut strings which also helped create a louder sound.  

         

        Although Classical Guitar and Finger Picking are two different styles of guitar and developed on their own in two different continents they carry a lot in common. 

         

        Classical Guitar can also be referred to as an academic study, where you get a degree in Classical music. Technically speaking Classical guitar is the same as Fingerpicking only we use a strings from Nylon or nowadays increasingly more popular from Carbon. The difference between Classical and Fingerpicking guitar has more to do with the styles of music we play. 

         

        If we instead of thinking of the Classical guitar as an academic study of music from the past and focus on the contemporary guitar music the finger picking and classical guitar are on the same journey. Modern Classical guitar composition often uses techniques developed by finger pickers such as tapping, retuning and percussive effects. 

         

        The guitar is perhaps one of the most globalized instruments in the world. You today find guitar every where. It's an instrument that travels easily and seem to be able to adapt itself into different styles of music and cultures. Of course mainly being used as an instrument suitable to support singing. But with finger picking techniques like a piano the guitar can provide melody, base and harmony all on one instrument. 

         

        Myself I have been particularly keen on music from the east, first I worked with Indian music for many years, but later I came to find a perfect match for the Classical Guitar making arrangements of Chinese Songs as well as make compositions in the style of Chinese traditional music. 

         

        Myself I also begun playing steel string guitar and have found the transition very easy. Today I am more interested in looking at the guitar as a whole. I do hope that there can be more connection between the two worlds in the future.  



        標簽:古典吉他







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